Top 8 Best Practices to Architect a serverless web application

Serverless computing has been gaining momentum ever since it came into limelight in 2015. It’s a native architecture of the cloud which enables users to create, deploy and run an application without thinking of its server. Serverless, in fact, allows users and developers to shift more the operational capacity, increase agility and innovation.  In short, you get limitless computational power with no infrastructure management tasks such as zero maintenance, cluster provisioning, capacity provisioning, etc. 

Top 8 Best Practices to Architect a serverless web app

Why Serverless

Serverless is the need of time. As technology advances, you need to come up with more enhanced web applications with more power and agility which may not be possible traditionally. And, even if it is possible, you need to spend a lot of effort such as building perfect infrastructure, human resources, time and cost. Serverless helps you remain focused on your core products while leaving all other responsibilities upon the serverless provider. All you need a serverless web application and you pay no heed towards its maintenance, scaling up, agility or anything else. You have immense benefits from having a serverless application. 

So, in this article, we shall be discussing the best practices of a serverless web application that every Serverless Architect should know.

Even though there are plenty of tech giants offering serverless services including AWS Lambda, Microsoft Azure, and Alphabet’s Google Cloud Platform, but we have taken the example of AWS to make it more comprehensive. So, here we go;

1. The Serverless Function Requires VPC-Enable for Better Security

We have taken an example of Lambda as most of us use AWS Lambdas as an event-driven, serverless computing platform. So, it is important to have VPC-enable functions of Lambda operate from VPC which is owned by AWS. Enabling this, you get complete ability to have your function make a network request to any address.

Lambda is not directly accessible to the public, but with the support of AWS APIs Getaway, we can make accessible for the public. So, be it accessing AWS APIs or interacting with AWS DyanamoDB APIs, you can easily do it after enabling the function for VPC access. So, having have your function VPC-enabled, the Subnet will manage all your traffic using its routing rules. 

2. Creating Event-Driven Architectures

When it comes to creating event-driven architectures, it is important to know the mechanisms and how to enable asynchronous messaging pattern. It applies in both creating a simple queuing and message buffering and choreography pattern that is more intricate even-based. To enable this, you need to use queues or streams.

Queuing is also used for intrapersonal communication. That means when you want to initiate communication between one Lambda function another, then Queuing can be the best for you.

3. How to Implement and Orchestrate in a Distributed, Microservices Environment

You need to implement coordinated transactions using coordinated sequenced invocations across services in distributed architectures. The implementation also allows rollback and retry mechanisms put in place. That is quite different from the traditional database-based ACID transactions. 

When you need significant orchestration logic and looking to utilize more of the orchestrator pattern, not the choreography pattern, then the serverless technology lie AWS Step Functions enables you to create highly qualified and complex workflows with its various AWS services that also includes AWS Lambda. 

4. Understanding AWS Lambda Computing Environment

It is important to understand AWS Lambda and programming model. You need to learn how to utilize Lambda in terms of performance and cost optimization. You learn this using the tutorial provided for AWS Lambda as “Lambda Under the Hood”, “Lambda Layers, the Runtime API, and Nested Applications” and “Optimizing Serverless Applications”. 

5. Serverless Deployment Automation

When it comes to a larger number of microservices and smaller components, integrating automation and code management into your application is critical. Given the fact that early integration will efficiently create, deploy and implement the serverless architectures. Importantly, when you use AWS, you get a wide range of first-party deployment tools and frameworks to properly architect your serverless web application. The tools and frameworks you can utilize from AWS include the AWS Serverless Application Model (SAM), the AWS Cloud Development Kit (CDK), AWS Amplify, and AWS Chalice.

Besides, there are various third-party tools and frameworks available to make the deployment of serverless web application easy, they include, Serverless Framework, Claudia.js, Sparta, or Zappa. You are free to create your custom-built framework, though you need to ensure that things such as automation strategy works as per use case, team and workflows. 

6. Identity Management, Authentication, and Authorization 

When it comes to creating a serverless web application, a developer requires planning things such as integrating identity management, building enhanced authorization and authentication functionalities in advance. The utilization of Amazon Cognito enables a developer to deploy these things directly into the serverless web applications. At the same time, when using Amazon API Gateway, the developers can manage things like authorization logic and permit requests straightforwardly. That means you manage the authorization logic at the gateway layer which protects your native authorization being exposed. 

7. Learning End-to-End Security Techniques 

Apart from knowing identity management, authorization and authentication, there are some more important security measures you can learn to create a highly secure serverless web application. Here are some of the top list of things you can consider;

  • Concerns regarding regulatory compliance
  • Ways to validate input and request
  • Metering & Throttling Access to tracking bandwidth and accessing use control based on rules
  • Securing storage and retrieving data as needed
  • IAM execution roles and implementing invocation policies 
  • And, others

You can learn all these things from the AWS tutorial page while creating the application. 

8. Considering Packages Size and Dependencies 

You must take care of package size as having a larger deployment package will slow down the function of the application. Therefore, you are advised to remove all the unnecessary items including documentation and libraries. You can use AWS SDK which enables Java function users to bundle the modules which needed from the SDK. 

Let’s take a look at the example of how using Java Function with AWS SDK create an excellent package;

<dependency>

    <groupId>software.amazon.awssdk</groupId>

    <artifactId>dynamodb</artifactId>

    <version>2.6.0</version>

</dependency>

Here, only the required modules have been used

In case, you are not using Java Function with AWS SDK, you end up creating a larger package with the entire SDK with lots of unnecessary modules. Here’s how it happens;

<!– https://mvnrepository.com/artifact/software.amazon.awssdk/aws-sdk-java –>

<dependency>

    <groupId>software.amazon.awssdk</groupId>

    <artifactId>aws-sdk-java</artifactId>

    <version>2.6.0</version>

</dependency>

Final Thoughts

When it comes to creating a serverless web application, you have plenty of things to learn. Serverless technology is the need of time as people need more services, support, and assistance from technology at the minimum costs. Serverless is the way to cut costs significantly and reward the business with limitless scaling options. Stay tuned for more such information. 

To know more about iView Labs, kindly log on to our website www.iviewlabs.com and to get in touch with us with your queries and needs just write us an email on info@iviewlabs.com and sales@iviewlabs.com.

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How to Select the Right Serverless Architecture: A Quick Comparison?

Businesses are benefiting from serverless architecture. They pay only for the services they use and get greater agility in return. Operational costs get lowered and developers can code uninhibitedly without worrying about hardware resource allocation. 

The biggest factor that works in favor of serverless architecture is the freedom to scale up and down as desired.  All these pros make a strong business case for companies that are planning to shift their selected workloads to the serverless model.

If you have already migrated to this disruptive technology or are planning on doing so shortly, these battle-tested tips and hacks can help you greatly. Using these suggestions, you can find the right serverless architecture provider for your business and then chalk out a working model that gives you the best returns.

Right Serverless Architecture

Which is the Best Serverless Provider for Me?

Your serverless provider will have long-term implications on your operations. The wrong selection can result in unimaginable loss in data, privacy, functionalities, and productivity.

There are many cloud computing providers who can help you set up your serverless architecture. But three platforms are undisputed leaders in the Function-as-a-service (FaaS) application model. They are:

  1. AWS
  2. Microsoft Azure
  3. Google Cloud

Let us compare their salient features so that you can make an informed decision for your business.

Features to select serverless architecture

Parameter #1:  Language Support & Deployment Options

AWS Lambda being the pioneer in serverless architecture finds widespread language support and deployment options. JavaScript, Node.js, Python, Java and C# give native support to AWS. It has a wide variety of runtime environments and is a versatile option for developers. Its API comes in a deployment package as a ZIP file which can be uploaded and edited directly in the console.

Azure AWS supports languages like C#, F#, Python, Java, Node.js, Python & PHP. It offers multiple deployment options, such as GitHub, DropBox, and OneDrive. You can also integrate it with Visual Studio and Zip Deployment.

Late entrant, Google Cloud, is supported by fewer languages, including Node.js 6, Node.js 7 and Python 3.7. More languages are expected to be appended in the list. For deployment, you have many options, such as Cloud Storage,  Zip Upload, CLI, and inline web editor.

Parameter #2: Management of Dependency

In AWS Lambda, you have to organize and align your dependencies with your code in a specific way. In this way, you create a deployment package. For doing this, you can use plugins such as Jenkins and Maven.

Azure Functions has the package.json built into your function directory. You can run npm install using the Console or Kudu in the Azure portal. This process is used universally, regardless of your choice of runtime language.

Google Cloud Functions allows you to manage dependencies via npm and lets you create a metadata file called package.json. Unlike AWS, Google install all dependencies on the user’s behalf. 

Parameter #3: Long-term Storage

The beauty of serverless architecture is that it is stateless. The functions written in this framework are not dependent on the underlying infrastructure and variables. AWS Lambda requires no use of variables while composing functions. But you can store variables in persistent locations like DynamoDB and cloud storage.

For Azure Functions, you may use Azure Blob Storage or Table Storage for storing persistent data across instances. In Google Cloud Functions, services such as Cloud Firestore, SQL, Storage, or Datastore should be used by your function is you want to share state.

Parameter #4: Access Management and Identity

Identity and Access Management (IAM) lets you control access to your functions by creating an authorization layer. Using this, you can decide what kind of resources you want (write-only or read-only) and what areas should these resources access (entire project or a single function only).

In AWS Lambda, you can create custom IAM policies and append to them your functions. Then, you can control users, roles, API actions, resources, and groups.

Azure Functions lets you create Resource Based Access Control for modulating function policies. Presently, you can grant read only/write only/ both rights.

Google Cloud Functions gives you more control as you can decide access permissions for each role. 

Parameter #5: Types and Triggers

Triggers are custom events or sources that invoke functions. AWS Lambda allows HTTPS-invoked events using REST API. There is also an endpoint which uses API Gateway. You can also use the wide variety of built-in AWS services. Functions can also be set off via AWS SDKs if you have the requisite permissions.

In Azure Functions, you can use services such as Queue Storage, Table Storage, or CosmosDB to create triggers. One add-on is that you can use external HTTP as well as WebHooks for invocation. 

Cloud Functions too supports HTTP triggers. You can also use Cloud Storage and Cloud Sub/Pub as triggers. New options are expected to be included in its Beta version.

Parameter #6: Orchestration

AWS has Step Functions that help to orchestrate serverless functions in a stateless architecture. Each function’s state is logged into a Step Function and used for subsequent functions.

In Azure Functions, Azure Logic Apps and Durable Functions accomplish the task of orchestration. Using connectors, you can integrate cloud services as well as on-site services. Google Cloud Functions suffers from a lack of orchestration capability.

Conclusion

The latest CNCF study reveals that AWS is the frontrunner among serverless architecture providers by claiming a market share of 70% deployments on Lambda. Its early advent and new updates are mostly responsible for its lead among competitors. But Google and Azure are fast catching up with their superb features and performance.

For newbies in serverless, our best advice is to give each provider a fair shot before making a final choice. You can evaluate each platform for compatibility with your custom software services, and choose the one which is best-aligned.

Get on a call with our expert to understand whether adopting serverless architecture for your web application is the right choice or not. 

To know more about iView Labs, kindly log on to our website www.iviewlabs.com and to get in touch with us with your queries and needs just write us an email on  and .

Download the latest portfolio to see our work.